Tele-agri/aquaculture

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Introduction

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Precision Farming

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"Precision Agriculture: “an integrated information- and production-based farming system that is designed to increase long term, site-specific and whole farm production efficiency, productivity and profitability while minimizing unintended impacts on wildlife and the environment.

Precision Agriculture (PA) is no longer a new term in global agriculture. Since the first substantial PA workshop was held in Minneapolis in 1992, it has become the subject of numerous conferences worldwide. An Australasian symposium on PA has been held annually from 1997. Its acceptance in the United States of America has been formally recognised by the drafting of a bill on PA by the US Congress in 1997. But where did the term and concept of PA come from? The impetus for the current concept of Precision Agriculture in cropping systems emerged in the late 1980’s with the matching of grid-based sampling of soil chemical properties with newly developed variable-rate application (VRA)equipment for fertilisers. Using a compass and dead-reckoning principles, fertilisers were applied at rates designed to complement changes in soil fertility maps that had been created. Crop yield monitoring technologies were still in the research phase at this stage. Around 1990, the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) became available in a limited capacity for civilian use and the opportunity for rapid and ‘accurate’ vehicle location and navigation sparked a flurry of activity. Electronic controllers for VRA were built to handle this new positioning information and crop yield monitors began to hit the commercial market. By 1993 the GPS was fully operational and a number of crop yield monitoring systems were allowing the fine-scale monitoring and mapping of yield variation within fields. The linking of yield variability data at this scale with maps of soil nutrient changes across a field marked the true beginning of PA in broadacre cropping. As yield monitoring systems were improved, it became evident that methods other than grid sampling for collaborative information would need to be developed. In many instances, grid sampling at the intensity required to correctly characterise variability in soil and crop parameters proved cost prohibitive and, by the late 1990’s, a “zonal” management approach had become a real option for management. This approach subdivides existing fields into zones of similar crop response and helps account for current limitations in data resolution while trying to maximise the benefits of PA for crop management. New systems for measuring or inferring soil and crop parameters on a more continuous basis continue to be developed using both proximal (i.e. on ground-based platforms)and remote (i.e. aerial and satellite) platforms. Examples of these are soil ECa measuring instruments, crop reflectance imaging and crop quality sensors. The success, and potential for further success, observed in the grains industry prompted other farming industries, particularly viticultural and horticultural crops, to adopt precision agriculture. Since the late 1990’s more and more research has been carried out in non-grain crops. Also, more emphasis is being placed on the environmental auditing capabilities of PA technology and the potential for product traceability. Advances in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) technology since 1999 have also opened the door for machinery guidance, auto-steering and controlled-traffic farming (CTF). CTF has provided sustainability benefits (such as minimisation of soil compaction), economic benefits (by minimising input overlap and improving timeliness of operations) and social benefits (such as reducing driver fatigue). As a result this form of PA technology has been showing swift adoption rates in the first decade of the 21st century."[1]

Aquaculture

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"Remote control fishing is accomplished by using a remote control boat. The remote control boat is usually of the battery operated type, but as long as a fishing line can be attached to the remote control boat, any remote control boat can be used.

Two methods are usually employed. One being a section of fishing line and baited hook attached to a remote control boat. In the modern age it began with some kids tying fishing line to a remote control toy boat, and catching a fish with it.

The limitations of the first method of tying a line directly to a r/c boat is if a big fish is hooked there is a risk of the fish pulling the remote control boat underwater.

The other method allows the fisherman to catch any size fish. It is done by attaching a line release to the r/c boat, and then attaching the line/hook and,(instead of casting) drive the line out with the r/c boat. When a fish strikes, the line disconnects, and the fisherman reels in the fish with a regular fishing pole.

Fishermen have experimented with the concept and use different homemade designs. Recent patents, and products now make remote control fishing boats available to the public."[2]

Livestock

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"GPS tracking of livestock is not a new science, surfacing more frequently over the last several years.

GPS monitoring technology has a lot of potential for farmers, allowing them to monitor the movements of livestock throughout the landscape, plot grazing patterns and see what areas the livestock have been depleting nutrients in the soil.

Farmers who utilize real-time GPS tracking to keep an eye on livestock have the ability to monitor spacial movements and spacial activities, information that can provide multiple benefits. "[3]

other

place holder for other agri/aquaculture tele-applications

References

  1. University of Sydney website http://www.usyd.edu.au/agriculture/acpa/documents/general_introduction_to_precision_agriculture.pdf
  2. Remote Control Fishing Wikipedia website, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Remote_control_fishing
  3. Tracking System Direct website, http://www.tracking-system.com/for-consumers/gps-personal-tracking-system/315-gps-tracking-livestock.html